Impulse control disorder in Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis of cognitive, affective, and motivational correlates


In Parkinson’s disease (PD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) develop as side-effect of dopaminergic replacement therapy (DRT). Cognitive, affective and motivational correlates of ICD in medicated PD patients are debated. Here, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the evidence for an association between ICD in PD and cognitive, affective and motivational abnormalities. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed on PubMed, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO for studies published between 1-1-2000 and 8-3-2017 comparing cognitive, affective and motivational measures in PD patients with ICD (ICD+) vs. those without ICD (ICD-). Exclusion criteria were conditions other than PD, substance and/or alcohol abuse, dementia, drug naïve patients, cognition assessed by self-report tools. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was used, and random-effect model applied. Results 10,200 studies were screened (title, abstract), 79 full-texts were assessed, and 25 were included (ICD+: 625 patients; ICD-: 938). Compared to ICD-, ICD+ showed worse performance reward-related decision-making (0.42 [0.02, 0.82], p = 0.04) and set-shifting tasks (SMD = -0.49 [95% CI -0.78, -0.21], p = 0.0008). ICD in PD was also related to higher self-reported rate of depression (0.35 [0.16, 0.54], p = 0.0004), anxiety (0.43 [0.18, 0.68], p = 0.0007), anhedonia (0.26 [0.01, 0.50], p = 0.04), and impulsivity (0.79 [0.50, 1.09], p < 0.00001. Heterogeneity was low to moderate, except for depression (I^2 = 61%) and anxiety (I^2 = 58%). ICD in PD is associated with worse set-shifting and reward-related decision-making, and increased depression, anxiety, anhedonia and impulsivity. This is an important area for further studies as ICDs have negative impact on the quality of life of patients and their caregivers.

Frontiers in Neurology, 9: 654